开源软件曾经被认为是功利主义者的空想。但是随着公司越来越多地采用Linux ® software into IT and business plans, 打开 source has entered the collective corporate consciousness. However, many questions remain about 打开 source and its place in the corporate model.

What is 打开 source?

开源是一种软件许可模型。与维护源代码保密的专有许可证模型不同,开放源代码模型会立即授予源代码访问权限。因此,通常称为“free”软件。但是,开源模型并不主张免费软件。“Free”指的是与分布式软件相关的公开源代码的任务。开源许可证模型有两种类型– copyleft and non-copyleft models. Copyleft models ensure that acquired source code remains 自由 for copying and modification by downstream users. Non-copyleft software places acquired source code closer to the public domain, thereby allowing incorporation into proprietary software by downstream users.

Copyleft软件是根据几种公共许可证之一分发的,其中最突出的是GNU通用公共许可证(通常称为GNU通用公共许可证)。"GPL"),1 GNU次通用公共许可证(通常称为"LGPL"),2 和Mozilla公共许可证(通常称为MPL)。3 尽管每个许可包含的条款略有不同,但copyleft模型的核心租户扩展到每个许可。

非copyleft软件通常是根据伯克利软件发行许可证(通常称为"BSD"),4 麻省理工学院许可(通常称为"MIT"),5 and the 自由BSD license.6 这些许可证比copyleft许可证包含的限制更少。

在采用copyleft软件之前,我应该调查哪些陷阱?

Copyleft software is not in the public domain, and licensees cannot make unrestricted use. A copyleft licensee must abide by the terms of the governing 打开 source license. Each copyleft license contains the same core terms, and by obtaining 打开 source code, a licensee agrees to these terms. For instance, copyleft licenses include a "give-back" provision and a "no warranty" provision.

Any modifications and/or derivative works of copyleft code must be released under the governing copyleft license. The licensee has the obligation to: 1) distribute all underlying source code with the software; and 2) license all copies of the software 上 ly under the governing copyleft license, thereby allowing downstream users 自由dom to copy and modify licensee’s software.

因此,被许可方必须注意不要将copyleft代码合并到打算对其进行专有或保密的软件中。当开源代码被合并到其他专有软件中时,某些专有部分也有可能成为"open" and must be distributed under the governing copyleft license. Each time a licensor redistributes a copy of the software the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute, or modify the software subject to these terms and conditions. This significant limitation ensures that 打开 source software will never become proprietary.

Both copyleft and non-copyleft 打开 source software are expressly exempt from any warranties of fitness. Licenses include general provisions excusing software creators from indemnifying against faulty software. However, licenses do allow specific authors to provide individual warranties where separately drafted.

What if I do not want to make modified copies of 打开 source software available for 自由 distribution and/or modification?

Non-copyleft 打开 source licenses place relatively few restrictions 上 licensees. These licenses allow 自由 copying, modification, and distribution provided licensees include certain copyright, advertising, and warranty notices. Importantly, distribution of modified non-copyleft software usually need not include source code access. Moreover, non-copyleft licensees need not "give-back"根据管理许可对其进行修改。因此,被许可人可以选择以版权保留,非版权保留或严格专有的模式枯萎分发经修改的软件。该模型更适合希望保留其最终产品大部分所有权的公司。

What are the benefits of incorporating 打开 source software into a company’s business model?

Open source advocates suggest that 打开 source software is a superior product because multiple contributors allow software to evolve quickly. Advocates believe that the 打开 source model creates more reliable software because code is exposed to public scrutiny, with problems being found and fixed. Some software entrepreneurs have experienced increased development speed, lower overhead, and a broader market by incorporating 打开 source software into their business model.

Where can I learn more about the 打开 source licensing model?

Due to significant differences between various 打开 source licensing models, a company must carefully research which model best suits its needs. The Open Source Initiative provides up-to-date information 上 打开 source licensing models 上 its website located at http://www.opensource.org/. Before incorporating any 打开 source model, a company should contact an attorney to receive detailed information about the possible benefits and detriments of adopting an 打开 source model.

1要阅读GPL,请参阅 http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.txt
2要阅读LGPL,请参阅 http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/lesser.txt
3要阅读MPL,请参阅 http://www.mozilla.org/MPL/MPL-1.1.txt
4要阅读BSD,请参阅 http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php
5To read the 麻省理工学院 see http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.html
6To read the 自由 BSD license see http://www.freebsd.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html